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 Vintage1970 Label 1 of 69 
ProducerR. López de Heredia (web)
VarietyTempranillo Blend
DesignationGran Reserva
VineyardViña Tondonia
RegionLa Rioja
SubRegionLa Rioja Alta

Drinking Windows and Values
Drinking window: Drink between 2003 and 2024 (based on 4 user opinions)
Wine Market Journal quarterly auction price: See Lopez de Heredia Vina Tondonia Gran Reserva on the Wine Market Journal.

Community Tasting History

Community Tasting Notes (average 92.3 pts. and median of 93 pts. in 42 notes) - hiding notes with no text

 Tasted by honest bob on 7/12/2015 & rated 93 points: From 75cl, sealing-wax capsule broke off cleanly, but cork soaked through and v. loose, so neck of bottle removed with port tongs. Light orange/brown/red colour. Decanted clear, very little powdery deposit. No scent on decanting, but be patient: After 15 minutes gorgeous strawberry jam and dried cranberry perfume, after 30 minutes with added fresh blood, old leather and – magical – forest floor. The strong acidity dominates the lithe, taut, slender palate: After 30 minutes fresh morello cherry, retronasal sandalwood(?) and cedar. Amazingly, there is still a touch of tannic grip on the finish (could have been scary to meet this wine down a dark alley when it was a tough young kid). A wonderful experience, best 30-60 minutes after decanting. 93-94P (1153 views)
 Tasted by tinybubbles on 6/14/2015 & rated 92 points: Wood sap, some sweet spice, and dry earth on the nose. Palate on this bottle had red cherry, light earth, and some leathery undertones. However, astringent backpalate as the fruit did not hold up well. Paired with sauteed skate. Not my best bottle, not my worst, but rather somewhere middle of the road. Poured and consumed within one hour. (1143 views)
 Tasted by Burgundy Al on 10/24/2014 & rated 93 points: SAG (Blind) Tasting (Chez Weber - Chicago IL): Tasted double blind in what turned out to be a "1970" flight. This was one of the most surprising wines of the night. Almost all of this thought it from Burgundy! Mature red cherries on nose and palate with great balance and woodsy spice. Long and well textured. I've had this wine 3 or 4 times over the past few years and there had been considerable bottle variation with tonight's certainly the best bottle. (2510 views)
 Tasted by Los 12 Glotones on 8/8/2014 & rated 95 points: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Els12golafres Wine Tasting Group: http://vinosclasicos.blogspot.com.es/2014/08/vina-tondonia-1970-gran-reserva.html
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Botella sin reencorchar desde el embotellado, cerrada con el lacrado original. Retirar el corcho ha requerido de muchas manos, de más opiniones y teorías, y de un pulso de cirujano al manejar el abridor de láminas. El corcho estaba formado por una materia semisólida enganchada al cuello de la botella. Inesperadamente ha saludo de una sola pieza. De color rubí de medio cuerpo, opaco, sin mucho brillo y cierta sensación de turbidez a pesar de no tener precipitados en la base de la botella.

Aromas de media intensidad, sin grandes artificios iniciales, y muy marcado por reductivos. Predominan los cueros y las maderas viejas, envinadas, que aportan una nota de ebanistería y lacas. Necesita aire para abrirse. Tostado, de perfil muy clásico y con el sello de la bodega: guindas en licor, marchitos, cremosos.

En boca domina su fuerte acidez y la sensación picante que apuntala todo tipo de especias ahumadas y un fondo ligerísimamente vegetal de mucha clase. Sabroso, ligero, redondo, elegante y potente en su estilo. Más definido y preciso al paso de las horas. Un Tondonia sin tanta carga de madera como en otras cosechas de ese mismo periodo. Grande, muy grande!!!

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75% tempranillo, 15% garnacho, 5% graciano, 5% mazuelo - 12% vol.
Permanece durante 6 meses en grandes depósitos de madera en los que acaba de realizar la fermentación maloláctica y se estabiliza antes de ser trasegado. Criado durante 10 años en viejas barricas de roble americano de 225 litros elaboradas por los toneleros de la misma bodega. El vino es sometido a 2 trasiegas manuales cada año. Clarificado con claras de huevo frescas. Embotellado directamente de la barrica. Sin filtrar. En este momento a todas las botellas se les coloca una cápsula de laca en el cuello que es substituida por una nueva cápsula de plomo cuando se procede al etiquetado. Descansa un mínimo de 44 meses en botellero antes de ser comercializado.
 Tasted by AV2012 on 6/24/2014 flawed bottle: Some wines from a trip; 6/19/2014-7/2/2014: High soulder.
A disappointing showing, tired bottle. Drinkable but may be showed only 10% of what is is capable of when good. There are no good wines but only good bottles - true in this case. (2559 views)
 Tasted by ericbuffalo on 3/29/2014 flawed bottle: A disappointing bottle. I won't devote much time here as I believe the bottle was slightly flawed. This was very tart and wasn't showing any of the complex components typical of Tondonia GR. Very linear and acidic. I've had other bottles of the vintage that would indicate that it should drink well until 2030. (2100 views)
 Tasted by Nanda on 3/20/2014 & rated 94 points: Wines that Charles loves (Cafe Pyrenees): Gorgeous, complex nose of leather, herb, and aged red fruit. Palate is elegant with medium bodied herb-filled red fruit and more leather notes. Terrific complexity, nuance and depth of flavor. (977 views)
 Tasted by Anonymous on 2/8/2014 & rated 93 points: Year 2; Tasting 2 of 5; Andrew does Rioja (1954-1994) (Red Room, Langdon Hall, Cambridge, Ontario): Popped and poured, followed approximately 2 hours. Light garnet in the glass, with a mild brick at the rim. On the nose, red cherry, strawberry, mushroom, dried herbs, sandalwood, decaying leaves, citrus peel, baking spice, leather, earth, and a touch of coffee. On the palate, beautifully textured, with medium plus acidity, light gripping tannins that accentuate the moderate length finish, characterized by tastes of cranberry, strawberry, earth and dried herbs. Plenty of life left here, and could go decades in the cellar. (1491 views)
 Tasted by Dave Canada on 2/8/2014 & rated 93 points: Year 2 - Super Tasting 2 of 5 - Andrew does Rioja (Langdon Hall, Blair, Ontario): Nose is quite complex showing pure spice, cherry, earth, mushroom, and float notes.
The palate is a bit more "dirty", but in a good way, with some schtank as one person put it. Coming through this is nice cherry, strawberry, leather, nutmeg, dried flowers and mushroom notes. The acid is lively but not distracting.
The finish is medium+ and quite complex....very feminine wine. (1810 views)
 Tasted by Wine Canuck on 2/8/2014 & rated 92 points: Year 2 - Super Tasting 2 of 5 - Andrew does Rioja (Langdon Hall, Cambridge, ON): Showing a fair bit of that VA. Really quite a wild untamed wine. Air didn't do anything to tone this down. Nose is of cherry, strawberry, undergrowth, hints of baking spices and lots of old gym bag aromas. Palate is very saline driven with dirty undergrowth. Finish is medium. (2122 views)
 Tasted by AV2012 on 12/20/2013 & rated 94 points: Such a classic! Transparent, brickish, Burgundy like colour, but with lots of fine dust size sediment so decant immediately and very carefully. Deep and comlex nose of smoke, hay, jamon, honeycomb, dark cherries, also some barnyard and even decaying tangerines. Be warned that this bottle did not develp for very long when in the glass, the wine was dying with air. Such a good classic. (A) (1381 views)
 Tasted by cardsandwine on 6/4/2013: As good and as memorable as the bottle I had 4 years ago. Round and delicious. A wine with plenty of soul. (1843 views)
 Tasted by Xavier Auerbach on 5/4/2013 & rated 93 points: A private lunch (The Harwood Arms *, Fulham, London, UK): Lovely, mature, warm colour; gentle, slightly cedary nose, develops a hint of lovage, warm and vinous, vestiges of ripe Tempranillo fruit, hint of nuttiness, wonderful depth; on the palate remarkably fresh, elegant, silky, fully mature flavours but not in any way tired, still retains some tannic grip; good length. (1892 views)
 Tasted by Burgundy Al on 3/2/2013 & rated 92 points: Another Saturday at Knightsbridge - mostly blind (Northbrook, IL): Tasted double blind. This is the third time I've had this wine over the past few years, and this was by far the best showing. Tobacco, slightly floral, intense mushroom and lingering red cherry aromas. Mature red cherry flavors with plenty of mushroom again. great acidity and textures. (2623 views)
 Tasted by keith prothero on 8/29/2012 & rated 95 points: Silky, almost ethereal, texture, not a hint of tannin, but still with a strong, bracing backbone of acid. A terrific wine and not merely because it is over 40 years old, although that was part of the pleasure. Still has lots of life in it and could turn out to be as good as the 42 I had last year. Outstanding (2840 views)
 Tasted by Burgundy Al on 1/7/2012 & rated 90 points: Saturday at Knightsbridge (Northbrook, IL): Tasted double blind. Moderately pale color. Aromas of well reduced mushrooms, tobacco and cedar. Earthy flavors with some nutty elements. Moderate length and power. Tough for me to identify as Rioja, only as a well made wine intended to age gracefully. Although I have almost no experience with old Heredia. (3365 views)
 Tasted by DaleW on 10/21/2011: John nailed quickly. Red fruits, orange zest, leather, and cured meats. Nice bottle showing well . A- (2534 views)
 Tasted by Le Musigny on 6/6/2011: Drinking well with smooth tannins, dark fruit. Very similar to the last bottle. (2690 views)
 Tasted by Anonymous on 5/22/2011: amazingly alive and complex. smoked meats, bright cherries, hint of earth and wrapped up in vivid acidity. long finish of fruit and meat. has years left and is just spectacular. (2535 views)
 Tasted by Seth Rosenberg on 3/23/2011 & rated 92 points: Great nose of strawberries - juicy and good acid. Big acid on palate. Strawberry and roses. Racy. Nose - 5/6, Palate - 5/6, Finish - 5/6, Je Ne Sais Quoi - 1/2 = 16/20. (2235 views)
 Tasted by Le Musigny on 1/10/2011: Pop and poured. The color was very clear light red with no bricking. Tight on the nose with red fruit coming through. The tannins are well integrated with a strawberry flavor coming through. There was a metallic finish on the wine which took a little away from the wine but by no means off putting. (2499 views)
 Tasted by Le Musigny on 10/29/2010 & rated 88 points: good not a great bottle. (2563 views)
 Tasted by astroman on 9/17/2010: Forrest floor some orange peel some evidence of alcohol. Palate still very much alive and kicking some cough mix. Very fine and elegant with long finish. (2757 views)
 Tasted by Paul S on 9/17/2010 & rated 95 points: Tok Hong's 40th (Infuzi, Biopolis): We had two bottles of this. Night and day when compared with the last time I drank a 1970 Tondonia. The last bottle a year or so ago was disappointingly on its last legs. These, one the other hand, were alive, kicking and extraordinarily good. A really superb wine. Nose was mindblowing - pure Rioja seduction. Dusky figs, plums, plush cherry scents, strawberry jam, earthy soil notes, a little Tempranillo smoke and spice, a little bloody note, a whiff of wild flowers. With time, it was positively Barolo-like, with roses galore wafting out the glass along with smoky accents, and then some meaty, beefy, smoky scents started floating out as well. Almost mesquite BBQ like. Wow. I could just smell this all night - it was one of the most complex, shifting bouquets I have ever come across. The palate was glorious too. Fully resolved tannins and fresh integrated acid formed a backdrop for wafting flavours of strawberries and dark cherries that just caressed the palate with a silky glide. Little hints of smoke lingered at the edges of the wine, as plums, figs and earth notes filled in the mid-palate. The finish was still going strong - trailing away with a long linger of red fruit, gentle woody ash notes, haw flakes and even wet stone. Not a weighty wine, in fact it seemed a little too ephemereal at the midpalate at times. But this was all lacy mouth-filling perfume - super refined, supremely elegant. May not be a wine for everybody, but I absolutely loved it. Why such a difference from the last bottle? Provenance? Storage? Who knows? But boy, I am not complaining. This was a knockout on the night, only bested by an even more extraordinary magnum of 1970 Vega Sicilia Unico. (3243 views)
 Tasted by MRichman on 3/8/2010: Spanish wines at Gotham Bar & Grill (Gotham Bar & Grill, NYC): Sweet core with dark notes. Silky smooth, beautiful, pretty, and strong. Lovely with good grip. Drinking beautifully now and has years to go. This was my WOTN.
A (3062 views)
 Only displaying the 25 most recent notes - click to see all notes for this wine...

Professional 'Channels'
By John Gilman
View From the Cellar, Jan/Feb 2015, Issue #55, Recently Tasted Spanish Wines- February 2015 And More Notes from October 2014 Visit to Spain
(Viña Tondonia Rioja “Gran Reserva”- López de Heredia) Login and sign up and see review text.
The World of Fine Wine, June 2011, Issue #32
(R López de Heredia Viña Tondonia Gran Reserva) Login and sign up and see review text.
By Jancis Robinson, MW
JancisRobinson.com (2/3/2011)
(López Heredia, Viña Tondonia Gran Reserva Rioja Red) Subscribe to see review text.
By John Gilman
View From the Cellar, Jan/Feb 2009, Issue #19, López de Heredia: Rioja’s Great Bastion of Tradition
(Viña Tondonia Rioja Gran Reserva- López de Heredia) Login and sign up and see review text.
By John Gilman
View From the Cellar, Sep/Oct 2006, Issue #5, Paradise Lost: Traditional Rioja in the Plague Years
(Lopez de Heredia Rioja Viña Tondonia Gran Reserva) Login and sign up and see review text.
By Richard Jennings
RJonWine.com (4/1/2009)
(R. López de Heredia Rioja Gran Reserva Viña Tondonia) Light medium brownish red with ruby lights and pale meniscus; VA, mature, mushroom, truffle and light cigar box nose; tasty, cigar box, smoke, mautre tart orange flavor and acidity, resin, tart hazelnut cream palate; long finish (has years to go)  93 points
NOTE: Scores and reviews are the property of View From the Cellar and The World of Fine Wine and JancisRobinson.com and RJonWine.com. (manage subscription channels)

CellarTracker Wiki Articles (login to edit | view all articles)

R. López de Heredia

Producer Website

Tempranillo Blend

Tempranillo is the backbone of wines made in the well-known Spanish regions Rioja and Ribera del Duero, but is also grown as far afield as Mexico and Australia.

As a flavor profile, red fruits like strawberries and cherries can predominate - but with a rustic edge. Many wines made from Tempranillo will spend a few years in barrel and bottle before reaching the consumer. Many Tempranillo-based wines see a few years of oak - add that to a few years of bottle and the wine can give a subtle - and occasionaly not-so-subtle - leathery mouthfeel. The combination of the tart fruit and tannins make this wine very food friendly.

Gran Reserva

Tradition Ascendant in Rioja
August 11, 2009

One of my stops on my recent trip to Spain was Rioja, where I was able to spend quite a bit of time at the venerable winery López de Heredia, which is the focus of my column this week.

As those of you who have been reading this blog for a long time may guess, I’ve had a long love affair with the wines of López de Heredia. In fact, my second post ever was about its wonderful rosado, which, unusually for any wine, let alone a rosé, is generally released when it’s about 10 years old.

It’s almost reflexive when talking about López to describe it as classic or unyielding, because it is quite immune to the trend-following that so often guides decision-making in the world of wine. That is true. But it took me this visit to realize that in its own way, López de Heredia is now a cutting-edge winery.

It’s a case of what goes around comes around, as forward-thinking winemakers have in many ways come around to López de Heredia’s ways of doing things. This is particularly true in the vineyard, where its gentle, natural viticultural approach is now the preferred approach my many of the world’s great producers. In the winery, it’s harder to say, except that Lopez’s gentle handling, reliance on natural yeasts and overall artisanal methods are likewise an ideal today.

Of course, the fact that Lopez uses old barrels, including enormous wooden fermentation vessels that have been around almost as long as the 132-year-old winery itself, leaves a lot of room for debate. Very few producers use barrels that old, though one that comes to mind is Biondi Santi in Montalcino.

Still, styles oscillate over the years, and I believe we are now retreating from an era of overly oaky wines, back to wines where the barrel regimen is as much if not more about imparting texture as it is flavor.

In fact, oaky flavors can be important in López de Heredia wines. All you have to do is taste one of its wonderful older white wines, like the 1991 reserva, to taste the hazelnut, coconut flavors of American oak beautifully integrated with the wine. And if you ever get a chance to taste a rare 1964 white, as I did in Rioja, you will be rewarded with a rich, pure wine tasting almost entirely of minerals.

The strange thing about López de Heredia is that because its wines have never changed, people tend to think of the company as a dour, humorless, rigid sort of place, haunted by the imperative of adhering to tradition. Nothing could be further from the truth.

For instance, while the winery is largely a sturdy example of late 19th century architecture, the new boutique for visitors, designed by the Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid, is fully in keeping with the non-linear architectural look of modern Rioja. It was in the boutique that I watched one afternoon as Maria José López de Heredia, along with her sister, Mercedes, and father, Pedro, about to turn 81, regaled tourists with a boisterous Spanish drinking song.

Many people might be surprised, for example, at some of the winery’s plans for tourism. Maria José, who often takes the lead role in public but runs the winery with her sister, father and brother, Julio César, would like to build a little train line to take tourists back and forth between the winery and its most famous vineyard, Viña Tondonia, just across the Ebro River.

“Why not?’’ she said. “It’s very important to teach people, and it’s easier to teach them if you give them a good time.’’

Of course, she has a serious reason as well. “It’s impossible for people to understand the soul of a wine if they don’t know how the grapes are grown,’’ she told me.

For people who do have the opportunity to visit López de Heredia, doubtless the most striking moment is seeing the thousands of bottles of gran reserva wines, aging in a cellar covered in mold and cobwebs. For people who are used to the squeaky clean hygiene of New World cellars (or for somebody like my mother, for example, who did not permit dirt in her kitchen) such a sight might prove troubling.

But the mold and cobwebs are typical of more than a few old Old World cellars, where they are considered an intrinsic part of the terroir. Maria José, for example, insists that the mold and webs are absolutely beneficial to the wines, and that cleaning them out under the mistaken notion of pursuing hygiene would have many unintended consequences.

“It’s protection, not affliction!’’ she said, and I don’t doubt her. Her wines, at least, are paragons of purity.

Viña Tondonia

Jay Miller in WA, June 2010
A visit to the venerable Bodega Lopez de Heredia, located in the Rioja Alta capital of Haro, is akin to entering a time machine taking you back 100 years. Construction of the Bodega began in 1877 and continues without any apparent changes to the present day. The winery is operated by the voluble Maria Jose Lopez de Heredia, her sister Mercedes, and their father Pedro, still active into his 80s. All of the wines are produced from estate grown bush vines. Tondonia and Bosconia are two different vineyards; Bosconia has a larger percentage of Tempranillo and a different orientation. For an excellent overview of the estate, read Eric Asimov’s blog in the New York Times dated August 11, 2009.


Vinos de España - Wines of Spain (Instituto Español de Comercio Exterior) | Wikipedia

Spain is the third largest wine producing nation in the world, occupying the majority of the Iberian Peninsula with vast diversity in climate, culture, and of course, wine. From inky, dark reds of the [Priorat] to dry, white Finos from Andalusia, Spain can easily boast of elaborating a wide variety of notable styles. Within Spain there are currently 62 demarcated wine regions, of which a handful have gained international recognition: [Rioja], Priorat and [Ribera del Duero]. Yet these regions are only a small sample of the high quality wines Spain produces. Regions such as Cava, Penedes, Somontano, Galicia, Rueda and Jerez are only a few of the numerous regions worthy of exploration throughout Spain. Spain can also lay claim to having the most land under vine in the world, growing up to, by some accounts, 600 indigenous varietals of which Tempranillo is their most well known. Other popular varietals include [Garnacha], Bobal and Monastrell for reds and for whites; the infamous Palomino Fino grape which is used in the production of sherry wine, Pedro Ximenez in Montilla Morilles, Albarino used in the creation of the bright, effervescent wines of Galicia, and Verdejo in Rueda. - Source: - Catavino.net

Spain is not in the forefront of winemaking for its dessert wines, other than for its sweet wines from Sherry country including the highly revered Olorosos and Amontillados. But apart from Sherry Spain has a range of styles of dessert wines, ranging from the those made from the Pedro Ximenez grape primarily in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles) to luscious, red dessert wines made in the Mediterranean from the Garnacha (Grenache) grape. Some good Moscatels are made in Mallorca, Alicante and Navarre. The northwest corner of Spain, Galicia, with its bitter Atlantic climate, is even making dessert wines, called “Tostadillos” in the village of Ribadivia (similar to France’s “Vin de Paille”). The Canary Islands have made interesting dessert wines for centuries (they are mentioned by Shakespeare, for example) and in recent years the quality of winemaking has been improved and the Canary Islands wines are being better marketed now. The winemaking styles for “Vinos Dulces” are also diverse, from “Late Harvest” (Vendimia Tardía) to “Fortified Wines” (Fermentación Parcial). Based on in-spain.info.

La Rioja

Consejo Regulador DOC Rioja - Control Board of the D.O.Ca. Rioja


Consejo Regulador DOC Rioja - Control Board of the D.O.Ca. Rioja

The wine region of La Rioja in Spain was first demarcated by the area's governing body, the Consejo Regulador, in 1926. The region extends for approximately 120 kilometres along both sides of the Ebro River and is, at its widest point, bounded by mountains on either side. In fact, the word 'Rioja' is a derivation of the two words 'Rio' (River) and 'Oja (the name of a tributary of the Ebro that runs right through La Rioja creating a series of microclimates and providing much needed water for the vines).

La Rioja has always been a vital part of Spain's history. Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Moors, and finally, medieval Crusaders have all played a part in the area's history. The Romans, however, made wine a part of their culture wherever they travelled, and La Rioja was no exception. Ancient sites of Roman wineries still exist in and around the area today.
After the Romans came the Moors, and winemaking all but ceased. It wasn't until after the famous 'El Cid' liberated Spain, and medieval Christianity brought trade via the Crusaders through the region, that it flourished again. The Benedictine monks of Cluny in Burgundy, known for their viticulture, helped to establish three monasteries in the area. The vines they planted were mostly white grapes. In the fourteenth century, English traders acquired a taste for a local Rioja wine, which was a blend of white and red wines called Blancos Pardillos. Over time, development of lighter reds came about satisfying eighteenth century English and French courts.

The real improvements to Rioja's viticulture began around 1780 when the need to prolong wine during transport brought about experimentation with different woods and preservatives. Studies were made of the techniques used by great chateaux in Bordeaux. With the outbreak of the Peninsular War, progress was halted until 1852, when the Bordelais came south to Rioja seeking vines because their vineyards had been blighted with oidium. French winemaking methods were eagerly taken up by great rivals the Marques de Murrieta and Marques de Riscal (who both claim to have been the first in Rioja to make wine in the Bordeaux fashion).

When phylloxera devastated Bordeaux in the 1870s and the French influence really took hold in Rioja, many of the region's finest bodegas started production on what we now consider as the great wines of Rioja. It’s important to remember that Bordeaux winemaking methods then were very different to those employed today in France, and involved long ageing in barrel, a factor that the Riojans took up enthusiastically. So enthusiastically in fact that to this day there are a number of Bodegas that still make their wine in a surprisingly similar fashion to that of the Bordelais in the later part of the 1800s and this also explains why oak ageing is such an important part of Riojan winemaking.

Pronounced vanilla flavours in the wines are a trademark of the region though some modern winemakers are experimenting with making wines less influenced by oak. Originally French oak was used but as the cost of the barrels increased many bodegas began to buy American oak planks and fashion them into barrels at Spanish cooperages in a style more closely resembling the French method. This included hand splitting the wood, rather than sawing, and allowing the planks time to dry and 'season' in the outdoors versus drying in the kiln. In recent times, more bodegas have begun using French oak and many will age wines in both American and French oak for blending purposes.

In the past, it was not uncommon for some bodegas to age their red wines for 15-20 years or even more before their release. One notable example of this is Marqués de Murrieta which released its 1942 vintage Gran Reserva in 1983 after 41 years of ageing. Today most bodegas have shifted their winemaking focus to wines that are ready to drink sooner with the top wines typically ageing for 4-8 years prior to release though some traditionalists still age longer. The typical bodega owns anywhere from 10,000 to 40,000 oak barrels.
The use of oak in white wine has declined significantly in recent times when before the norm was traditionally 2-5 years in oak. This created slightly oxidised wines with flavours of caramel, coffee, and roasted nuts that did not appeal to a large market of consumers. Today the focus of white winemakers has been to enhance the vibrancy and fruit flavours of the wine.

Most Riojan Bodegas believe that the ageing of a wine should be the responsibility of the producer rather than that of the consumer, and this is why much Rioja is more mature than wines from other countries. Rioja red wines are classified into four categories. The first, simply labelled 'Rioja', or 'Sin Crianza' (meaning 'without ageing') is the youngest, spending less than a year in oak. A "Crianza" is wine aged for at least two years, at least one of which is in oak. 'Reserva' is aged for at least three years, of which at least one year is in oak. Finally, 'Gran Reserva' wines have been aged at least two years in oak and three years in bottle. Reserva and Gran Reserva wines are not necessarily produced each year. Also produced are wines in a semi-crianza style, those that have had a couple of months of oak influence but not enough to be called a full crianza. The designation of Crianza, Reserva or Gran Reserva might not always appear on the front label but may appear on a neck or back label in the form of a stamp designation known as Consejo.

Rioja Alta
Located on the western edge of the region, and at higher elevations than the other areas, the Rioja Alta is known for more fruity and concentrated wines which can have very smooth texture and mouth feel.

Rioja Alavesa
Despite sharing a similar climate as the Alta region, the Rioja Alavesa produces wines with a fuller body and higher acidity. Vineyards in the area have a low vine density with large spacing between rows. This is due to the relatively poor conditions of the soil with the vines needing more distance from each other and less competition for the nutrients in the surrounding soil.

Rioja Baja
Unlike the more continental climate of the Alta and Alavesa, the Rioja Baja is strongly influenced by a Mediterranean climate which makes this area the warmest and driest of the Rioja. In the summer months, drought can be a significant viticultural hazard, though since the late 1990s irrigation has been permitted. Temperatures in the summer typically reach 95°F. Twenty percent of the vineyards actually fall within the Navarra appellation but the wine produced from the grapes is still allowed to claim the Rioja designation. The predominant grape here is the Garnacha which prefers the hot conditions, unlike the more aromatic Tempranillo. Consequently Baja wines are very deeply coloured and can be highly alcoholic with some wines at 18% alcohol by volume. The wines typically do not have much acidity or aroma and are generally used as blending components with wines from other parts of
the Rioja.

The Riojans are master blenders (as they have to be because there are relatively few single estates in the area, the norm being to blend from a wide variety of vineyards and wine areas). Consequently they are able to reduce vintage variation by careful blending and many of the best wines vary relatively little between vintages.

Rioja wines are normally a blend of various grape varieties, and can be either red (tinto), white (blanco) or rosé (rosado). Rioja has a total of 57,000 hectares cultivated, yielding 250 million litres of wine annually, of which 85% is red. The harvest time for most Rioja vineyards is September-October with the northern Rioja Alta having the latest harvest in late October. The soil here is clay-based with a high concentration of chalk and iron (which provides the redness in the soil that may be responsible for the region's name, Rioja, meaning red). There is also significant concentration of limestone, sandstone and alluvial silt.

Among the Tintos, the best-known and most widely-used variety is Tempranillo. Other grapes used include Garnacha Tinta, Graciano, and Mazuelo. A typical blend will consist of approximately 60% Tempranillo and up to 20% Garnacha, with much smaller proportions of Mazuelo and Graciano. Each grape adds a unique component to the wine with Tempranillo contributing the main flavours and ageing potential to the wine; Garnacha adding body and alcohol; Mazuelo adding seasoning flavours and Graciano adding additional aromas.
With Rioja Blanco, Viura is the prominent grape (also known as Macabeo) and is sometimes blended with some Malvesia and Garnacha Blanca. In the white wines the Viura contributes mild fruitness, acidity and some aroma to the blend with Garnacha Blanca adding body and Malvasia adding aroma. Rosados are mostly derived from Garnacha grapes. The 'international varieties' of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot have gained some attention and use through experimental plantings by some bodegas but their use has created wines distinctly different from the typical Rioja.

Some of the most sought after grapes come from the limestone/sandstone based 'old vine' vineyards in the Alavesa and Alta regions. These 40 year old plus vines are prized due to their low yields and more concentrated flavours. A unique DO regulation stipulates that the cost of the grapes used to make Rioja must exceed by at least 200% the national average of wine grapes used in all Spanish wines.

Rioja (Red) Year %

2004 Superb vintage, classic wines Drink or Hold 94
2003 Hot, dry year, long-ageing wines Drink or Hold 91
2002 Smallest vintage in 10 years. Variable quality.
Keep to top names Drink or Hold 87
2001 Excellent year for long ageing Reservas
and Gran Reservas Drink or Hold 94
2000 A generally good vintage with fine Reservas Drink or Hold 89
1999 Smaller vintage of good quality Drink or Hold 88
1998 Good vintage Drink or Hold 97
1997 Unexciting so far, but quaffable Drink or Hold 84
1996 Good year, plenty of ageing potential Drink or Hold 89
1995 Very good vintage, Reservas now showing excellent fruit Drink or Hold 92
1994 Outstanding, some great long-ageing wines Drink or Hold 94
1993 Lesser wines, apart from best-known names Drink 77
1992 Rather light vintage Drink 80
1991 Still improving, average quality Drink or Hold 85
1990 Fairly ordinary but quaffable Drink 84
1989 Good, firm structure Drink 88

Rioja Reserva & Gran Reserva – Vintages of the Eighties Year %

1989 Goodish vintage, well balanced Drink 88
1988 Fairly good vintage, well balanced wines Drink 88
1987 Very attractive vintage, now at peak Drink 90
1986 Average year, now drinking well Drink 87
1985 Average year, now drinking well Drink 87
1984 Disappointing, with problem weather Avoid 80
1983 Don't keep it any longer Drink 86
1982 Now past its best Drink 83
1981 Superb wines, finest will keep longer Drink 90
1980 Average vintage, don't keep any longer Drink 86

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