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Appellation

: Rivesaltes
Revision 1: edited by clutj on 4/23/2015 (view)
http://www.wine-searcher.com/regions-rivesaltes

Appellation

: Roero
Revision 2: edited by ConstanceC on 4/20/2015 (view)
Roero DOCG was established in 2005 and includes the following wines:

Roero DOCG: Min 95% Nebbiolo, aged min 20 months with 6 months in barrel, min 12.5% abv.
Roero Riserva DOCG: 100% Nebbiolo, aged min 32 months with 6 months in barrel, min 12.5%abv.
Roero Arneis DOCG: Min 95% Arneis, min 11% abv.
Roero Arneis Spumante DOCG: Min 95% Arneis, can be made at any sweetness level, min 11.5% abv.

Roero is located in the northwest corner of the Langhe region of Piedmont next to the city of Alba in the province of Cuneo. The official winegrowing area runs from the north bank of Tanaro and runs along the river between the areas of Bra and Govone. There are 23 villages in Roero, with Canale being the largest. Each area may contain more or less sandy soils; not all areas are deemed suitable for winemaking.

In 2014, Roero was named a Unesco World Heritage site.

Soils: An ancient sea, called the Golfo Padano, once covered the area of Roero in its entirety. As a result, many fossilized marine creatures and large amounts of sediment are still found in the soils. The soils are primarily sand with limestone mixed in, in certain areas, and/or clay.

Climate: Roero has a cold and temperate climate with harsh, cold winters filled with snow and an unpredictable spring and autumn, which can be very wet. Summer is hot, but can be humid.

Appellation

: Bořetice
Revision 1: edited by pru on 4/15/2015 (view)
Bořetice

Stát: Česká republika

Oblast: Morava

Podoblast: Velkopavlovická

Celková rozloha vinic [ha]: 429.4

Osázená registrovaná plocha vinic [ha]: 165.5

Počet registrovaných pěstitelů: 274

Údaje z roku: 2007

Popis:

V Bořeticích bylo ke konci roku 2007 registrováno 274 pěstitelů a 165,5 ha registrované osázené plochy vinic (Z celkových 429 ha výměry tratí).

Sada barevných mapek a fotografií je od Bogdana Trojaka. Takto kdyby materiály o svých tratích pojala každá významnější vinařská obec, to by bylo...
Bogdan ale razí, že tradiční názvy tratí mají svou nenahraditelnou jazykovou, kulturní a historickou hodnotu, takže pokud do nich relativně nedávno necitlivě zasáhlo úřední přejmenovávání, je třeba toto úřadem posvěcené barbarství tvrdošíjně ignorovat. Jím uváděné názvy tratí tedy ne všude korespondují s úředním názvoslovím. Pro porovnání jsem vložil své vlastní tři černobílé zákresy, které uvádějí současné oficiální hranice a názvy viničních tratí.

Piji odtud pravidelně vína bratří Springerů, před i po jejich rozdělení. Názor na ně dosud nemám jednoznačný. Nechají se mezi nimi najít jak drahá zklamání, tak vyslovené skvosty. Vína Vinařství Jedlička-Novák má počáteční očekávání zatím nenaplnila. Sklep zde mají i Vinné sklepy Roztoky - tam se též dají nalézt pěkné kousky. Chutnal jsem i pár vína Miroslava Habřiny na výstavě a ta mne věru dostala, musím prozkoumat podrobněji. Těžko asi doporučovat vína kamarádova a tvářit se při tom objektivně, ale pokud budete mít příležitost s víny Bogdana Trojaka, ochutnjete, myslím, že nebudete litovat. Též vína Oty Ševčíka provází vynikající pověst.

V protokolech o vizitaci lánů panství hodonského z roku 1673 se vyjmenovávají tratě: Kraví hory přední, Kraví hory vrchní, Mlynáři, Randlíci, Louky, Koczáry, Novosady, Obramy či Olbramy, Dlouhé, Bočky dolní, Haltýře, Pratačky.

Appellation

: Côtes du Rhône Villages Signargues
Revision 3: edited by pru on 4/15/2015 (view)
Odkaz na apelaci Signargues

Článek o apelaci na Wikipedii

Appellation

: Barolo
Revision 3: edited by Pipa on 4/11/2015 (view)
Regional History:
The wines of Piedmont are noted as far back as Pliny's Natural History. Due to geographic and political isolation, Piedmont was without a natural port for most of its history, which made exportation treacherous and expensive. This left the Piedmontese with little incentive to expand production. Sixteenth-century records show a mere 14% of the Bassa Langa under vine -- most of that low-lying and farmed polyculturally. In the nineteenth century the Marchesa Falletti, a frenchwoman by birth, brought eonologist Louis Oudart from Champagne to create the first dry wines in Piemonte. Along with work in experimental vineyards at Castello Grinzane conducted by Camilo Cavour -- later Conte di Cavour, leader of the Risorgimento and first Prime Minister of Italy -- this was the birth of modern wine in the Piedmont. At the heart of the region and her reputation are Alba and the Langhe Hills. This series of weathered outcroppings south of the Tanaro River is of maritime origin and composed mainly of limestone, sand and clay, known as terra bianca. In these soils -located mainly around the towns of Barolo and Barbaresco -- the ancient allobrogica, now Nebbiolo, achieves its renowned fineness and power.

Appellation

: Grands-Echezeaux Grand Cru
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 3/16/2015 (view)

Appellation

: Bolgheri Superiore
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 2/9/2015 (view)

Appellation

: Meursault
Revision 5: edited by charlie11 on 1/19/2015 (view)
Located in Cote de Beaune, south of Volnay and north of Puligny Montrachet. Meursault ("Murr-so") has historically been Burgundy's center for white wine production. In fact, nearly all of the 2.5 million bottles produced from 440 ha (1,090 acres) are whites. The soil is a mixture of marl and chalk and is perfectly suited to the production of chardonnay. Meursault wines are known for aromas of hazelnuts, honey and vanilla for its aromas and creamy, almost olive oilllike texture. There are no grand crus in Meursault, though Les Perričres, Les Genevričres and Les Charmes produce remarkable wines. Further, some of the most well-known vineyards of Meursault such as Narvaux and Limozin are not premier cru but Villages-classified vineyards. Recent top vintages include 2008, 2007, 2005, 2002, 1999, 1996, 1993, 1990.


With 437ha. of vineyards dedicated to Villages wine or Premier Cru, Meursault has the largest area permitted to be planted in white wine in the Cote-d'Or. Furthermore, despite the fact that the village lacks even one grand cru, Meursault has historically been Burgundy's center for white wine production, in the past even more so than Puligny-Montrachet or Chassagne-Montrachet. While much of those two villages had in the past been planted to red grapes, Meursault has always been white wine territory. In fact, the modern day vineyard of Les Combettes in Puligny-Montrachet, which forms a continuous chain with the premier crus of Meursault, was once considered part of Meursault and not Puligny, where the many nearby vineyards produced red wine. There are several important factors that determine the reputation of Meursault. Primarily, the soil throughout most of Meursault is perfectly suited to the production of chardonnay; it is a mixture of marl and chalk, that when combined with a largely east or southeast exposure creates healthy grapes that are full of character. Another factor correlates to geology, though in a very different way. Meursault's high water table allows its residents to carve deep, cold cellars "perfect for the production of wine" into the chalky, stony soil. So, while large negociants from Beaune dominated the production and marketing of Burgundy throughout time, Meursault remained a wine of its own citizens. Contributing to this, since red wine has been more prized throughout time, these same negociants looked elsewhere for sources because the wine of Meursault has always been white.

What makes the wine so special? The most common descriptors attached to Meursault are hazelnuts, honey and vanilla for its aromas and creamy for its texture. However, this simplifies things quite a bit. In most cases, Meursault despite an almost olive-oil texture is countered by a precise mineral character, stoniness and a more refined overall palate than, for instance, Chassagne-Montrachet. It's the unique stony/mineral character that often gets lost when tasting Meursault, as many concentrate on the ripe, hedonistic primary flavors and aromas. It's the bipolarity of the wine, the interplay of both factors, that makes Meursault one of the most sought after white wines in the world. As mentioned above, there are no grand crus in Meursault, though many would argue that Perrieres, Genevrieres and Charmes can attain these lofty heights in the hands of the best producers. Further, some of the most well-known vineyards of Meursault such as Narvaux and Limozin are not premier cru but Villages-classified vineyards, though again, the best examples are clearly of higher quality. source: http://www.burgundywinecompany.com/wines/display.php?subregion=Meursault
The vineyards on weinlagen-info

Appellation

: Côte-Rôtie
Revision 4: edited by Jeff Leve on 1/17/2015 (view)
Guide to Cote Rotie

• The Appellation cover three com­munes - Saint-Cyr-sur-Rhône, Ampuis and Tupin-Semons - on the right Rhône river bank, within the Rhône "département".

• Soils : In the northern part of the vineyard, the Côte Brune, consists of extremely steep, terraced slopes of fer­ruginous mica schists which are cove­red with schist sand (arzel).The Côte Blonde has a varied geology with gneiss and granite predominating at the most southern side of the appellation.

• Climate : tempered continental. Dry, hot summers and frequent rain­falls during the other seasons. History : one of the oldest vineyards in France, first developed by the Romans. It is said that during the Middle Ages, "The Seigneur de Maugiron" bequea­thed a hillside to each of his daughters, one was brunette and the other fair. Thus, were born the names of "Côte Brune" and "Côte Blonde".

• Area planted : 230 hectares (568 acres), for an annual production of 8,400 hectoli­ters (93,333 cases). Authorized maximum yield is 40 hectoliters/hectare (2,3 US tons/acre).

• Grape Varieties : Syrah (80% mini­mum). An addition of up to 20% of Viognier grapes in the crop is allowed.

Single vineyards on weinlagen-info

Appellation

: Hermitage
Revision 4: edited by Jeff Leve on 1/17/2015 (view)
Guide to Hermitage wine

• The appellation stretches over 3 com­munes in the Drôme "département" : Tain-l'Hermitage, Crozes-Hermitage and Larnage.

• The soils are a combination of grani­te with alluvial quaternary delta depo­sits, and, on the eastern side, Pliocene clay. This diversity explains the nume­rous different names given to vineyard plots within the appellation : Bessards, Greffieux, Méal, Roucoule, Beaumes, etc.

• The meso-climate provides shelter from the north winds, where the majo­rity of the slopes is well exposed, facing south.

•The vineyards area adds up to 134 hectares/331 acres, with an annual production of 3,635 hectoliters. Authorized maxi­mum yield is 40 hectoliters/hectare (2.3 US tons/acres).

• Grape varieties : Syrah (an addition of up to 15% of Marsanne or Roussanne is allowed).

all the single vineyards on weinlagen-info.de

Appellation

: Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Revision 7: edited by charlie11 on 1/13/2015 (view)
Châteauneuf-du-Pape Appellation - Read more about Chateauneuf du Pape

Another site on this appellation
Vineyards on weinlagen-info

"As I have written many times in the past, the sweet spot for drinking Châteauneuf du Papes is usually the first 5-6 years after the vintage. Then they seem to go through an adolescent, awkward, and sometimes dormant stage, only to re-emerge around year 10-12, where the majority of wines are often fully mature. The best of them will continue to hold on to life (but rarely improving) beyond 15-20 years. It is only the exceptional Châteauneuf du Papes that will evolve for 20-25+ years, and those are indeed a rarity. However, things may be improving dramatically in terms of the longevity of Châteauneuf du Pape, although Grenache-dominated wines, the vast majority of wines produced in the appellation, are wines that do not have the polyphenol (extract and tannin) content of top Cabernet Sauvignons, Merlots, or Syrah-based wines. Nevertheless, the younger generation in Châteauneuf du Pape has taken seriously the farming in the vineyards. There are more organic and biodynamically run vineyards here than in any other appellation of France. The yields, which were already low, are even lower today (20-35 hectoliters per hectare), and of course, the proliferation of top luxury and/or old-vine cuvées gives a significant boost to the number of wines that will evolve past 25 or 30 years. The advantage of these wines is their broad window of drinkability." ( Robert Parker )

Appellation

: Savigny-lčs-Beaune
Revision 12: edited by charlie11 on 1/9/2015 (view)
Savigny-lčs-Beaune (Wikipedia)

The Village:  Savigny-lčs-Beaune lies between Beaune to the south and to the north Pernand-Vergelesses with Aloxe-Corton to the east.  This vibrant little village is both picturesque and charming. The village dates to the Roman-Gallo Villa Saviniaci.  Its twelfth century church, two châteaux, and similarly venerable homes surrounded by their vineyards, invite exploration. Moreover, many (12) of the walls of Savigny's edifices are engraved with wall inscriptions, often on the subject of wine.  These date from about 1700 when monsieur de Migieu, who owned the Château de Savigny, had them engraved. One states: "Les vins de Savigny sont nourrissants, théologiques et morbifuges." ("The wines of Savigny are nourishing, theological and death-preventive.") This was doubtless inspired by the Vatican's impressive orders for Savigny's wines, which were far in excess of that needed to celebrate the mass.
 
Today Savigny is village of 1,450 inhabitants (only twice the number from the 13th century!).  It is well know for two annual festivals, the first is Bienvenue ŕ Savigny (Welcome to Savigny) held the first weekend in May when most of the village winemakers open their doors for tasting.  The second in mid July is Savigny en Tous Sens (Savigny in All Senses) when the village hosts a balade gourmande, featuring numerous village wines, that ends with a sit-down dinner at the Château.  This event requires a ticket that can be obtained from the event web site http://www.savigny-entoussens.com/). Savigny is also the home to Cousinerie de Bourgogne, a society of approximately 200 devoted to the celebration of wine.
 
The Wines:  Savigny is the third largest producer of red wine in the Côte d'Or behind Beaune and Pommard.  It also produces small amounts of whites, rosés, and crémants.
 
Savigny has no Grand Crus but more Premier Crus than any other village on the Côte d'Or.  The village has 22 Premier Crus totaling 141.5 ha, split into two groups by the river Rhoin which runs through it from the Haut Côte down to the plain, those south of the village toward Beaune include les Rouvrettes, Redrescul, les Haut Jarron, La Dominode, les Jarron, les Narbantons, les Haut Marconnets, les Marconnets and those north of the village toward Pernand include Aux Guettes, Aux Clous, Aux Serpentičres, Aux Gravains, Petites-Godeaux, les Charničres, les Talmettes, les Lavičres, les Vergelesses, Batailičre, les Basses-Vergelesses, Champ-Chevrey, and Aux Fourneaux.
 
Savigny's vineyards show two distinct terroirs. Those to the north of the Rhoin face almost due south with full sun and are rich in limestones but with shallow soil, producing lighter, fruitier, faster-maturing wines; those to the south of Rhoin face almost due east (with 1-2 hours less sun) and are sandier with deep soil, producing fuller, more earthy, longer-lived wines.
 
There are also 212.5 ha of village wines including Aux Grands Liards with its vines planted in 1913 and approaching their 100 year anniversary.  The village also has 190 ha of regional burgundy vineyards.  Of particular importance in the village is the production of crémants, which was started in 1825.  The lesser central vineyards lie mostly along the bank of the little Rhoin River, which runs between the two Côtes of Savigny.
The vineyards on weinlagen-info

Appellation

: Cirň Bianco
Revision 1: edited by bacchus on 12/23/2014 (view)
http://www.wine-searcher.com/regions-ciro

Ciro is a DOC of the Calabria wine region in deepest southern Italy. Considered one of the oldest named wines in the world, with a winemaking history stretching back thousands of years, this is Calabria's flagship wine. Calabrian wines are currently held in low regard, and Ciro is the only DOC wine from the entire region to have retained prestige through to contemporary times.

Ciro
The coat of arms of Ciro
Ciro wine is made in the eastern foothills of the La Sila plateau and out to the Ionian coast, in the Ciro, Ciro Marina, Crucoli and Melissa communes. The latter also produces wine under its own Melissa DOC title. The highest-quality grapes come from vineyards employing the alberello basso vine training method, meaning grapes are harvested by hand due to their bushy shape. For economic reasons many modern vineyards have abandoned this traditional process, turning instead to the espalier trellised vine training system. While espalier-trained vines are easier to harvest, the quality of their fruit is considered inferior to those grown on the alberello bush vines.

The DOC produces mainly red wine, although a limited quantity of white is also produced using Greco Bianco and Trebbiano. All Ciro Rosso is made from 95% Gaglioppo, with the remaining 5% from the white varieties Greco Bianco and Trebbiano Toscano. It may be surprising to learn that a deep red wine from the south of Italy can be made with a portion of white grapes, but this is not as unusual as it might seem; the robust reds of the northern Rhone valley (Cote Rotie, for example) are often made more supple and alluring with the addition of Viognier, sometimes as much as 20%.

The Ciro Rosso Riserva wines represent the finest that Ciro, and indeed Calabria, can produce. These are matured for at least two years before commercial release, of which six months must have been spent in oak barrels. Those bearing the term classico are from grapes grown at the very heart of the catchment area, and are theoretically superior. The wines are universally tannic and full-bodied with good structure and a high alcohol content of up to 14%. They are generally intended for consumption within five years after vintage, but it can take up to ten years to soften out the tannic structure in the more robust examples.

The close proximity of the Mediterranean is important to the terroir here, as the mass of water helps to moderate the intense heat of the south Italian summer. The name Il Mezzogiorno, meaning 'The Midday', is often applied to Italy's southern half in reference to this persistent heat. The cooling and heating of the land over the course of a summer day causes morning and afternoon breezes, which minimize the risk of fungal vine diseases and further improve the climate's suitability for quality viticulture. All of this combines to create a Mediterranean climate highly suited to quality viticulture, and helps to explain the success of Ciro wines. The terroir is not limited to this part of Calabria, however, so there is potential for Ciro's neighbors to enjoy similar success, depending on the uptake of quality winemaking and some effective marketing.

Appellation

: Champagne
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 12/11/2014 (view)
The vineyards of Champagne on weinlagen-info

Appellation

: Dealu Mare
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 12/9/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Bourgueil
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 11/27/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Guijoso
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 10/17/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Moselle Luxembourgeoise
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 10/7/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Collio Goriziano
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 10/2/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Moscato d'Asti
Revision 3: edited by iByron on 10/1/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Dolceacqua
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 9/17/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Vacqueyras
Revision 3: edited by charlie11 on 7/7/2014 (view)
La Mairie et du Syndicat des Vins de Vacqueyras
* The appellation area covers the two communes of Vacqueyras and Sarrians, within the Vaucluse "département", at the base of the "Dentelles de Montmirail" hills.
* The soils are alluviums and terraces of glacier origin, formed during the Riss period of the quaternary era (between 120 and 300 thousand years BC).
* The climate is hot and dry, with a high level of sunshine hours.
* History : following the decree that gave appellation status to the Côtes du Rhône, in 1937, Vacqueyras was given named status as "Côtes du Rhône Vacqueyras", before being classified as "Côte du Rhône Villages" in 1955. It obtained full appellation rank under its own name in 1990.
* Production area : 1,300 hectares/3210 acres, for an annual production of 45,000 hec­toliters/500 cases with a basic yield of 36 hecto­liters/hectare (2 US tons/acre).
The vienyards on weinlagen-info

Appellation

: Rioja
Revision 3: edited by AndrewSGHall on 5/27/2014 (view)
Consejo Regulador DOC Rioja - Control Board of the D.O.Ca. Rioja

HISTORY
The wine region of La Rioja in Spain was first demarcated by the area's governing body, the Consejo Regulador, in 1926. The region extends for approximately 120 kilometres along both sides of the Ebro River and is, at its widest point, bounded by mountains on either side. In fact, the word 'Rioja' is a derivation of the two words 'Rio' (River) and 'Oja (the name of a tributary of the Ebro that runs right through La Rioja creating a series of microclimates and providing much needed water for the vines).

La Rioja has always been a vital part of Spain's history. Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Moors, and finally, medieval Crusaders have all played a part in the area's history. The Romans, however, made wine a part of their culture wherever they travelled, and La Rioja was no exception. Ancient sites of Roman wineries still exist in and around the area today.
After the Romans came the Moors, and winemaking all but ceased. It wasn't until after the famous 'El Cid' liberated Spain, and medieval Christianity brought trade via the Crusaders through the region, that it flourished again. The Benedictine monks of Cluny in Burgundy, known for their viticulture, helped to establish three monasteries in the area. The vines they planted were mostly white grapes. In the fourteenth century, English traders acquired a taste for a local Rioja wine, which was a blend of white and red wines called Blancos Pardillos. Over time, development of lighter reds came about satisfying eighteenth century English and French courts.

The real improvements to Rioja's viticulture began around 1780 when the need to prolong wine during transport brought about experimentation with different woods and preservatives. Studies were made of the techniques used by great chateaux in Bordeaux. With the outbreak of the Peninsular War, progress was halted until 1852, when the Bordelais came south to Rioja seeking vines because their vineyards had been blighted with oidium. French winemaking methods were eagerly taken up by great rivals the Marques de Murrieta and Marques de Riscal (who both claim to have been the first in Rioja to make wine in the Bordeaux fashion).

When phylloxera devastated Bordeaux in the 1870s and the French influence really took hold in Rioja, many of the region's finest bodegas started production on what we now consider as the great wines of Rioja. It’s important to remember that Bordeaux winemaking methods then were very different to those employed today in France, and involved long ageing in barrel, a factor that the Riojans took up enthusiastically. So enthusiastically in fact that to this day there are a number of Bodegas that still make their wine in a surprisingly similar fashion to that of the Bordelais in the later part of the 1800s and this also explains why oak ageing is such an important part of Riojan winemaking.

USE OF OAK
Pronounced vanilla flavours in the wines are a trademark of the region though some modern winemakers are experimenting with making wines less influenced by oak. Originally French oak was used but as the cost of the barrels increased many bodegas began to buy American oak planks and fashion them into barrels at Spanish cooperages in a style more closely resembling the French method. This included hand splitting the wood, rather than sawing, and allowing the planks time to dry and 'season' in the outdoors versus drying in the kiln. In recent times, more bodegas have begun using French oak and many will age wines in both American and French oak for blending purposes.

In the past, it was not uncommon for some bodegas to age their red wines for 15-20 years or even more before their release. One notable example of this is Marqués de Murrieta which released its 1942 vintage Gran Reserva in 1983 after 41 years of ageing. Today most bodegas have shifted their winemaking focus to wines that are ready to drink sooner with the top wines typically ageing for 4-8 years prior to release though some traditionalists still age longer. The typical bodega owns anywhere from 10,000 to 40,000 oak barrels.
The use of oak in white wine has declined significantly in recent times when before the norm was traditionally 2-5 years in oak. This created slightly oxidised wines with flavours of caramel, coffee, and roasted nuts that did not appeal to a large market of consumers. Today the focus of white winemakers has been to enhance the vibrancy and fruit flavours of the wine.

WINE CLASSIFICATION
Most Riojan Bodegas believe that the ageing of a wine should be the responsibility of the producer rather than that of the consumer, and this is why much Rioja is more mature than wines from other countries. Rioja red wines are classified into four categories. The first, simply labelled 'Rioja', or 'Sin Crianza' (meaning 'without ageing') is the youngest, spending less than a year in oak. A "Crianza" is wine aged for at least two years, at least one of which is in oak. 'Reserva' is aged for at least three years, of which at least one year is in oak. Finally, 'Gran Reserva' wines have been aged at least two years in oak and three years in bottle. Reserva and Gran Reserva wines are not necessarily produced each year. Also produced are wines in a semi-crianza style, those that have had a couple of months of oak influence but not enough to be called a full crianza. The designation of Crianza, Reserva or Gran Reserva might not always appear on the front label but may appear on a neck or back label in the form of a stamp designation known as Consejo.

SUB REGIONS
Rioja Alta
Located on the western edge of the region, and at higher elevations than the other areas, the Rioja Alta is known for more fruity and concentrated wines which can have very smooth texture and mouth feel.

Rioja Alavesa
Despite sharing a similar climate as the Alta region, the Rioja Alavesa produces wines with a fuller body and higher acidity. Vineyards in the area have a low vine density with large spacing between rows. This is due to the relatively poor conditions of the soil with the vines needing more distance from each other and less competition for the nutrients in the surrounding soil.

Rioja Baja
Unlike the more continental climate of the Alta and Alavesa, the Rioja Baja is strongly influenced by a Mediterranean climate which makes this area the warmest and driest of the Rioja. In the summer months, drought can be a significant viticultural hazard, though since the late 1990s irrigation has been permitted. Temperatures in the summer typically reach 95°F. Twenty percent of the vineyards actually fall within the Navarra appellation but the wine produced from the grapes is still allowed to claim the Rioja designation. The predominant grape here is the Garnacha which prefers the hot conditions, unlike the more aromatic Tempranillo. Consequently Baja wines are very deeply coloured and can be highly alcoholic with some wines at 18% alcohol by volume. The wines typically do not have much acidity or aroma and are generally used as blending components with wines from other parts of
the Rioja.

The Riojans are master blenders (as they have to be because there are relatively few single estates in the area, the norm being to blend from a wide variety of vineyards and wine areas). Consequently they are able to reduce vintage variation by careful blending and many of the best wines vary relatively little between vintages.

VITICULTURE & GRAPES
Rioja wines are normally a blend of various grape varieties, and can be either red (tinto), white (blanco) or rosé (rosado). Rioja has a total of 57,000 hectares cultivated, yielding 250 million litres of wine annually, of which 85% is red. The harvest time for most Rioja vineyards is September-October with the northern Rioja Alta having the latest harvest in late October. The soil here is clay-based with a high concentration of chalk and iron (which provides the redness in the soil that may be responsible for the region's name, Rioja, meaning red). There is also significant concentration of limestone, sandstone and alluvial silt.

Among the Tintos, the best-known and most widely-used variety is Tempranillo. Other grapes used include Garnacha Tinta, Graciano, and Mazuelo. A typical blend will consist of approximately 60% Tempranillo and up to 20% Garnacha, with much smaller proportions of Mazuelo and Graciano. Each grape adds a unique component to the wine with Tempranillo contributing the main flavours and ageing potential to the wine; Garnacha adding body and alcohol; Mazuelo adding seasoning flavours and Graciano adding additional aromas.
With Rioja Blanco, Viura is the prominent grape (also known as Macabeo) and is sometimes blended with some Malvesia and Garnacha Blanca. In the white wines the Viura contributes mild fruitness, acidity and some aroma to the blend with Garnacha Blanca adding body and Malvasia adding aroma. Rosados are mostly derived from Garnacha grapes. The 'international varieties' of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot have gained some attention and use through experimental plantings by some bodegas but their use has created wines distinctly different from the typical Rioja.

Some of the most sought after grapes come from the limestone/sandstone based 'old vine' vineyards in the Alavesa and Alta regions. These 40 year old plus vines are prized due to their low yields and more concentrated flavours. A unique DO regulation stipulates that the cost of the grapes used to make Rioja must exceed by at least 200% the national average of wine grapes used in all Spanish wines.

VINTAGE CHART
Rioja (Red) Year %

2004 Superb vintage, classic wines Drink or Hold 94
2003 Hot, dry year, long-ageing wines Drink or Hold 91
2002 Smallest vintage in 10 years. Variable quality.
Keep to top names Drink or Hold 87
2001 Excellent year for long ageing Reservas
and Gran Reservas Drink or Hold 94
2000 A generally good vintage with fine Reservas Drink or Hold 89
1999 Smaller vintage of good quality Drink or Hold 88
1998 Good vintage Drink or Hold 97
1997 Unexciting so far, but quaffable Drink or Hold 84
1996 Good year, plenty of ageing potential Drink or Hold 89
1995 Very good vintage, Reservas now showing excellent fruit Drink or Hold 92
1994 Outstanding, some great long-ageing wines Drink or Hold 94
1993 Lesser wines, apart from best-known names Drink 77
1992 Rather light vintage Drink 80
1991 Still improving, average quality Drink or Hold 85
1990 Fairly ordinary but quaffable Drink 84
1989 Good, firm structure Drink 88



Rioja Reserva & Gran Reserva – Vintages of the Eighties Year %

1989 Goodish vintage, well balanced Drink 88
1988 Fairly good vintage, well balanced wines Drink 88
1987 Very attractive vintage, now at peak Drink 90
1986 Average year, now drinking well Drink 87
1985 Average year, now drinking well Drink 87
1984 Disappointing, with problem weather Avoid 80
1983 Don't keep it any longer Drink 86
1982 Now past its best Drink 83
1981 Superb wines, finest will keep longer Drink 90
1980 Average vintage, don't keep any longer Drink 86

Appellation

: Soave
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 5/27/2014 (view)

Appellation

: Soave Classico
Revision 1: edited by charlie11 on 5/27/2014 (view)
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