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: Red Blend
Revision 43: edited by DanSm on 5/21/2015 (view)
Red Blend is used for any combination of red grapes that does not fit into CellarTracker's preset blends (Red Bordeaux Blend, etc). Actual blend composition for a given wine should be entered under the per wine or per wine vintage wiki articles.

60% Malbec, 15% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot


: Friulano
Revision 1: edited by ChipGreen on 5/18/2015 (view)
Friulano (formerly Tocai Friulano, and also known as Sauvignonasse) is a grape variety most famous for its role in the white wines of Friuli, northeastern Italy.
These wines, usually varietal, are lively and fruit-driven with notes of citrus and almond, and often a touch of minerality. The grape is thought to be native to
South West France, where it is known as Sauvignonasse or Sauvignon Vert. However, it has moved on from its home and into northeastern Italy, where it has
quickly become one of the region's most classic styles. Mentions of wines called "Tocai" date back hundreds of years here, but as always, it is not clear exactly
what grape variety this refers to. Many local winemakers believe it to be Tocai Friulano.


: Nebbiolo
Revision 11: edited by ConstanceC on 5/11/2015 (view)
Nebbiolo is a red grape indigenous to the Piedmont region of Italy in the Northwest. The grape can also be found in other parts of the world, though they are not as respected.

Nebbiolo is often considered the "king of red wines," as it is the grape of the famed wines of Barolo DOCG, Barbaresco DOCG, and Roero DOCG. It is known for high tannins and acidity, but with a distinct finesse. When grown on clay, Nebbiolo can be very powerful, tannic, and require long aging periods to reach its full potential. When grown on sand, the grape exhibits a more approachable body with more elegant fruit and less tannins, but still has high aging potential.

"Nebbiolo" is named for the Italian word, "nebbia", which means "fog", in Italian and rightfully so since there is generally a lot of fog in the foothills of Piedmont during harvest.

Nebbiolo is a late-ripening variety that does best in a continental climate that boasts moderate summers and long autumns. In Piedmont, Nebbiolo is normally harvested in October.

More links:
Varietal character (Appellation America) | Nebbiolo on CellarTracker


: Arneis
Revision 4: edited by ConstanceC on 4/20/2015 (view)
Arneis a white grape variety indigenous to the Roero area of Piedmont.

Arneis, meaning "Little Rascal," was discovered in Roero in the 17th century, it wasn't until the 1980's that this grape was viewed as true quality when a few championing winemakers from Roero began increasing plantings and focusing on make quality wine. Before that, it was often called, "white nebbiolo" and was planted to distract birds from taking the Nebbiolo grapes and also blended into the Nebbiolo wines. Today there are 700 hectares of Arneis planted in Roero and more in Langhe.

A typical Arneis will be medium bodied, with medium acidity, and contains notes of notes of white peach, pear, and other stone fruits, citrus, and a distinct minerality, especially when grown on sandy soils. Best examples can age and develop nutty character, but many are meant to be consumed within three years.

Official designations:
Roero Arneis DOCG: Min 95% Arneis, min 11% abv.
Roero Arneis Spumante DOCG: Min 95% Arneis, can be made at any sweetness level, min 11.5% abv.
Langhe Arneis DOC: Must be 85% Arneis

Arneis is also grown in cooler climate areas such as Oregon.

More links:
Varietal character (Appellation America)

The Freshmaker (PA Vine Co)


: Tannat
Revision 14: edited by pecete on 3/20/2015 (view)
Varietal character (Appellation America) | Wikipedia

A southern French variety, it's most commonly found in the southwest part of the country near the Pyrenees. Characteristically, it has hard tannins, raspberry aromas, and a fair amount of astringency. Given those tannins, it's successful as the base for French roses, where tannins are minimized by little skin contact. In blends, particularly in California, Tannat adds bite to what might otherwise be flabby or soft wines resulting from overripe grapes.

Wine from the Tannat grape is typically rough and tannic when young, but with aging will mature into a full-bodied red wine. Modern winemaking in France (Madiran appellation) has begun to emphasize the fruit more and utilize barrel aging to help soften the tannins, with the wines typically spending about twenty months in oak prior to bottling.

The Tannat vine was introduced in Uruguay by Basque settlers in the 1870’s and began to flourish as it readily adapted to the local soil and climate. Today it is often blended with Pinot Noir and Merlot, and is made in a variety of styles including those reminiscent of Port and Beaujolais. Although considered Uruguay’s national grape, Tannat is also grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil and in Italy's Puglia region where it is used as a blending grape.

Tannat wines produced in Uruguay are usually lighter in body and lower in tannins than those from France. In France, efforts to solve the harsh tannic nature of this grape led to the development of the winemaking technique known as micro-oxygenation. Vineyards in Uruguay have begun to distinguish between the "old vines" that are descendants from the original European cuttings and the new clones introduced in the 1990’s. The newer vines tend to produce more powerful wines with higher alcohol levels but less acidity and complex fruit characteristics, although some wineries utilize both vines to make blends.

First brought to the US late in the 19th century by a UC Berkeley agricultural professor, Tannat plantings did not receive much attention until the 1990’s when California producers, most notably in the Santa Cruz Mountains and Paso Robles viticultural areas, began using it in blends with Cabernet Franc, Sangiovese and Syrah. In 2002, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms formally recognized Tannat as a separate varietal.

In the vineyard, Tannat is one of the easiest varietals to grow, ripening late and being frost hardy. Unlike other varietals, it is not prone to overproduction and so does not require thinning. The grape’s berries have thick skins, which make it resistant to powdery mildew and botrytis, and which contributes to the varietals naturally high tannins. One notable difficulty with growing Tannat is its thick stems, which cling tightly to the berries and can be difficult to remove at harvest.

Tannat has significantly higher polyphenol content than other red grapes, making it the most bioactive variety with regards to oxidative reactions in food. Doctors have recommended Tannat as being the best wine grape for cardiopulmonary health because it contains a large amount of the antioxidant procyanidin, a chemical which helps bolster blood vessels and increase oxygen flow to red blood cells, ultimately helping to avert cardiovascular disease.

Tannat makes decidedly robust wines, with pronounced aromas of tobacco smoke, plum or ripe berries. The wines also tend to be dense purple-red in color, with significant tannins and a wonderfully spicy finish. Notable California producers include Bonny Doon Vineyards in the Santa Cruz Mountains and Tablas Creek Vineyards in Paso Robles.


: Croatina
Revision 1: edited by neurowine1 on 12/31/2014 (view)


: Tannat Blend
Revision 1: edited by Kamelion on 12/27/2014 (view)
Tannat, Cabernet Sauvignon


: Castelão
Revision 1: edited by AndrewSGHall on 12/15/2014 (view)


: Rice
Revision 1: edited by AndrewSGHall on 12/13/2014 (view)


: Lacrima
Revision 2: edited by ChipGreen on 12/13/2014 (view)
Lacrima Is An Ancient, Indigenous, Aromatic And Flavorful Grape Grown In An Area Bordering The Morro D’Alba Zone In The Hills Of The Marche Region.
The Maturation Of The Grapes Is Characterized By An Evident "Lacrima" (Teardrop) Of Juice Which Oozes Out Of Very Ripe Grapes.


: Ravat 51
Revision 1: edited by ChipGreen on 12/11/2014 (view)


: White Blend
Revision 9: edited by Rocketscience on 12/8/2014 (view)
Blend of two or more white grape varietals. One of the oldest labels in the highly competitive market for Italian grappas. Made from 85% free-run grape juice as well as distilled pips and stems, rather than the pips and stems alone


: Humagne Rouge
Revision 1: edited by Eric on 12/2/2014 (view)
There is confusion on Cornalin/Humagne Rouge.

Many of the folks in the Valais were itinerants bouncing back and forth over the Grand St Bernard pass into Aosta. Cornalin in Aosta is actually made with the grape that is referred to as Humagne Rouge in the Valais.

The Swiss have done lots of DNA tracing, but all they know is that the Humagne Rouge is a cross between what they refer to as Cornalin and something else. And what the Swiss call Cornalin (Rouge du Pays) is a cross of two Valdotan varietals.


: Cornalin
Revision 1: edited by Eric on 12/2/2014 (view)
There is confusion on Cornalin/Humagne Rouge.

Many of the folks in the Valais were itinerants bouncing back and forth over the Grand St Bernard pass into Aosta. Cornalin in Aosta is actually made with the grape that is referred to as Humagne Rouge in the Valais.

The Swiss have done lots of DNA tracing, but all they know is that the Humagne Rouge is a cross between what they refer to as Cornalin and something else. And what the Swiss call Cornalin (Rouge du Pays) is a cross of two Valdotan varietals.


: Garnacha
Revision 3: edited by Steven Williams on 7/15/2014 (view)
Wikipedia: In Spain, Grenache is known as Garnacha and given the likely history of the grape this is most likely the grape's original name. There are several clonal varieties of Garnacha with the thin-skinned, dark colored Garnacha Tinta (sometimes spelled Tinto) being the most common. Another variety, known as Garnacha Peluda or "Hairy Grenache" due to the soft softly hairy texture on the underside of the vine's leaves is also found in Spain, mostly in Borja and Cariñena (Aragón). Compared to its more widely planted cousin, it produces wines lower in alcohol and higher in acidity that show spicy and savory notes more readily as they age.[11] Widely planted in northeastern and central Spain, Garnacha was long considered a "workhorse" grape of low quality suitable for blending. In the late 20th century, the success of the Garnacha based wines from Priorat in Catalonia (as well as the emerging international attention given to the New World Rhone Rangers) sparked a re-evaluation of this "workhorse" variety. Today it is the third most widely planted red grape variety in Spain (behind Tempranillo and Bobal) with more than 203,300 acres (82,300 ha) and is seen in both varietal wines and blends.[3]

Garnacha plays a major role in the Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOC/DOQ) wines of Rioja and Priorat and the Denominación de Origen (DO) wines of Navarra and all southern Aragonese and southern Catalonian appellations, plus the mountainous areas just southwest of Madrid: Méntrida and Cebreros. In Rioja the grape is planted mostly in the warmer Rioja Baja region located in the eastern expanse of the wine region. Usually blended with Tempranillo, Garnacha provides juicy fruitiness and added body. In recent years, modern Rioja producers have been increasing the amount of Garnacha used in the blend in order to produce earlier maturing and more approachable Riojas in their youth. Garnacha is also used in the pale colored rosados of Rioja.[3] The vine has a long history in the Navarra region where it has been the dominant red grape variety with nearly 54% of the region's vineyard planted with Garnacha. Compared to neighboring Rioja, the Garnacha-based blends of Navarra are lighter and fruitier, meant for earlier consumption.[5]


: Champagne Blend
Revision 12: edited by sweetstuff on 4/26/2014 (view)
The typical champagne blend is of three grapes - Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Pinot Meunier. Wines labeled as 'Blanc de Blancs' are by definition all Chardonnay, and wines labeled as 'Blanc de Noirs' contain Pinot Noir, Meunier or both in the blend.

There are how ever three additional grape varieties planted (Arbane, Petit Meslier and Pinot Blanc) and used in Champagne, they could be called legacy grapes and do not represent significant portion of the grapes used (<0.01%?). It is not permitted to plant more of these varieties.

However, sparkling wines that are not Champagne (i.e. not grown in the area legally allowed that name in France) may be made of several other grapes, too. For example, Markko Vineyards 'Excelsior' was given the name 'Champagne' with tongue-in-cheek, as the winemaker has embarked on a program to educate his consumers away from the use of the 'C' word. This wine is actually made like many German Sekts, from Riesling.


: Carmenère
Revision 4: edited by joraesque on 3/30/2014 (view)
Varietal character (Appellation America)

Wikipedia Page:
Carménère wine has a deep red color and aromas found in red fruits, spices and berries. The tannins are gentler and softer than those in Cabernet Sauvignon and it is a medium body wine.[8] Although mostly used as a blending grape, wineries do bottle a pure varietal Carménère which, when produced from grapes at optimal ripeness, imparts a cherry-like, fruity flavor with smoky, spicy and earthy notes and a deep crimson color. Its taste might also be reminiscent of dark chocolate, tobacco, and leather. The wine is best to drink while it is young.


: Gamay de Bouze
Revision 1: edited by joraesque on 2/10/2014 (view)
Gamay de Bouze is an ancient vine originally from the village of Bouze-lès-Beaune in Burgundy (Côte-d'Or) and implanted in the Loire Valley over a hundred years ago. It is a mutation of the Gamay Noir variety that produces white juice as first noted by Caumartin in 1832.


: Mourvedre Blend
Revision 1: edited by Jeff Leve on 12/31/2013 (view)


: Grenache
Revision 5: edited by Jeff Leve on 12/31/2013 (view)


: Red Rhone Blend
Revision 16: edited by Jeff Leve on 12/31/2013 (view)
Read about the different grapes used to produce red and white Rhone wines
On CellarTracker, Red Rhone Blend is the term for a wine consisting of two or more of the traditional 13 Southern Rhone grape varieties. Typically it's the Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre or Cinsault grapes, but can also contain the Muscardin, Counoise, Clairette, Bourboulenc, Picpoul, Roussanne, Terret Noir, Picardan or Vaccarese grapes.

A 'food' wine. Lacking pretension and intended for local consumption with local cuisine. Lacks the 'high' notes on a Bordeaux, more earthy and sharper so often a better partner to meat dishes with a sauce.


: Lagrein
Revision 1: edited by songoose on 12/16/2013 (view)


: Chasselas
Revision 3: edited by ewill on 9/24/2013 (view)
Varietal Character (Appellation America)

Taken From Wikipedia:

Chasselas is a wine grape variety grown in Switzerland, France, Germany, Portugal and New Zealand.

Theories of its origin vary. Some believe it originally comes from from Egypt with a 5,000 year history of cultivation. Others, notbably Pierre Galet believe it is a native Swiss variety.

Widely grown in the cantons of Switzerland where it has several regional synonym names, the main one being Fendant in the Valais canton. It is considered an ideal pairing for Raclette or Fondue. Chasselas is also known as Perlan in the Mandement district.

In Germany with 1,123 hectares, it is almost exclusively grown in the wine region of Baden under the name Gutedel.

Chasselas is mostly vinified to be a full, dry and fruity white wine. It is also suitable as a table grape, grown widely for this purpose in Turkey. In France it is mostly grown in the Loire region where it is converted into a blend with Sauvignon Blanc called "Pouilly-sur-Loire" and in the Savoie region where it is treated in the Swiss manner. In New Zealand it is mainly made into popular sweet white wines. Californian and Australian growers know this variety under the alias names of Chasselas Dore or Golden Chasselas.


Chasselas is the most important and widely planted grape variety in Switzerland. It is also grown in France, Germany, eastern Europe, north Africa and the Americas, but the Swiss tend to have the most success with this often neutral-tasting grape.

There are a range of theories about where Chasselas originated — Egypt, the Middle East, the town of Chasselas in the Maconnais and Switzerland have all been suggested. Wherever it originated, it has been grown in Germany and Switzerland for at least 500 years, with the latter succeeding in creating terroir-expressive wines.
A Chasselas Vine

Chasselas is a green-skinned variety that turns yellow-golden when ripe. It can be a very vigorous and an over-productive vine if not properly controlled. It makes very light-bodied wine that blends well with Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris or almost any other white wine variety available.

The best examples in Switzerland can show a range of fruity, floral and mineral flavors, with good acidity and the ability to age well. Older examples tend to show more honeyed and nutty flavors, taking on a more golden hue that is characteristic of older wines.

In France, Chasselas is not taken particularly seriously and it has been largely removed from Alsace and the Loire where it was once widely planted. It is still used in the production of table grapes, which may have prejudiced the French against its winemaking potential.

The Germans and Italians also grow a little Chasselas. Unsurprisingly, the more serious expressions of it are produced in areas close to the Swiss border, such as Savoie in France and Baden in Germany.

A red-skinned version known as Roter Gutedel, or Chasselas Violet, is also grown to a limited extent.

Synonyms include: Fendant, Perlan, Gutedel, Dorin, Wälscher, Chasselas de Moissac, Chasselas Doré, Moster, Marzemina Bianca, Chrupka Bila.

Food matches include:
Europe: Mushroom pastetli (pie)
Australasia/Oceania: Crayfish laksa


: Sangiovese
Revision 12: edited by StefanAkiko on 7/14/2013 (view)
SANGIOVESE: (Pronounced "sahn-joh-vhe-se").
Sangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Traditionally made, the wines are full of cherry fruit, earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti (Classico), Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others. Sangiovese is also the backbone in many of the acclaimed, modern-styled "Super-Tuscans", where it is blended with Bordeaux varietals (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Cabernet Franc) and typically aged in French oak barrels, resulting a wine primed for the international market in the style of a typical California cabernet: oaky, high-alcohol, and a ripe, jammy, fruit-forward profile.[16]

Semi-classic grape grown in the Tuscany region of Italy. Used to produce the Chianti and other Tuscan red wines. Has many clonal versions, two of which seem to predominate. The Sangiovese Grosso clone Brunello variety is used for the dark red, traditionally powerful and slow-maturing "Brunello di Montalcino" wine. The other is the Sangiovese Piccolo, also known under the historical synonym name Sangioveto, used for standard Chianti Classico DOC wines. Old vine derived wine is often used in the better versions, needing several years ageing to reach peak. A third clone, Morellino, is used in a popular wine blend with the same name found in the southern part of the province. Recent efforts in California with clones of this variety are very promising, producing medium-bodied reds with rich cherry or plumlike flavors and aromas. Among the available clonal versions are R6 and R7, derived from the Montalcino region of Italy, having average productivity/ripening and producing small berries on medium size clusters. R10 and R24 are well-recommended. R23, listed as deriving from the Emilia-Romagna region, has good vigor with medium-small clusters with earlier ripening. R102 derives from the Montepulciano region and reported to have average vigor with moderate productivity that results in higher sugar levels and good acidity from medium-small berries on medium-small clusters. Has synonym name of Nielluccio where grown in Corsica.


: Pineau d'Aunis
Revision 8: edited by monist on 6/13/2013 (view)